Jakarta – BRIN Public Relations. Sustainable energy transition has become one of the topic issues in the (S20) Science activity, as a series of the G20 Presidency events. With regard to the issue of energy, Indonesia has set a net Zero Emission (NZE) to be achieved by 2060. The fact is that presently the New Renewable Energy (NRE) mix has only reached 12.7 percent. Hence, maximum efforts are needed to pursue the NRE target of 23 percent by 2030.

Senior Researcher of BRIN’s Energy and Manufacturing Research Organization, Eniya Listiani Dewi, said that from the science and technology perspective, BRIN has provided 8 government policy recommendations to achieve NZE.

The first recommendation is to boost the biofuel program for B30, B50, B100, D100, etc. Second, to use cofiring to replace existing steam power plants. “It used to be based on biomass, but now it has started to be hydrogen-based,” said Eniya, in the National Webinar on Energy Transition: Towards Sustainable Development, Thursday (17/02).

Third, management of waste to become fuel (Refused Derived Fuel / RDF). Fourth, to have de-dieselization program or replace diesel generators with NRE, such as geothermal, biogas, and biomass.

“The Domestic Component Level (TKDN) of our geothermal technology has even reached 65 percent. However, for production innovation, it is necessary to assist with policies or investment and industry incentives,” added Eniya.

Fifth, development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology for utilization and industry. Sixth, use of blue and green hydrogen for utilization and petrochemical industry. According to Eniya, the petrochemical industry must start to see the potential of blue and green hydrogen, and the potential of ammonia to become new energy.

Seventh, development of battery-based and fuel-cell electric vehicles. The last is interconnection transmission, using rooftop solar power plants (PV roof tops), floating solar power plants (floating PV), smart grids, and Electro-Mobility (e-Mobility).

Energy Transition Expected to Build Community Resilience

Senior Researcher of BRIN’s Research Organization for Governance, Economics, and Community Welfare, Maxensius Tri Sambodo said that energy transition is not merely the switch from fossil energy to NRE, but the policy makers must observe that this energy transition is expected to build resilience in the public.

“This means there should be no lot of sacrifices made during this energy transition,” he said.

He said that presently the world community is in search of balance position. We cannot simply blame fossil energy, because over the last 2 decades, coal power plants have given many benefits in improving the position of energy security in Indonesia.

Indonesia still encourages people’s increased access to more adequate and quality electricity. Although data from the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources shows that Indonesia’s electrification ratio has reached more than 99 percent of PLN’s electricity, there are more than 1.8 million households that have electricity access not from PLN.

This poses a challenge for social researchers to design energy transitions with the ultimate goal of creating a just and prosperous society.

“This is where social researchers play their role to continue doing research, convincing the policy makers that with this energy transition, we can improve many things, open up better job opportunities, improve health and education conditions, as well as increase productivity which will in turn create an economic added value. within the society,” concluded Maxensius.

The National Webinar on Energy Transition: Towards Sustainable Development is one of the S20 agenda items, as a series of the G20 Presidency event. This national webinar is a collaboration between BRIN, AIPI, University of Indonesia, Asian Development Bank, and the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (tnt).